Figure 4 | Scientific Reports

Figure 4

From: Ancestral mitochondrial N lineage from the Neolithic ‘green’ Sahara

Figure 4

Map of Africa with the alternative models discussed. Haplogroups are indicated in black circles in their probable area of origin. Continuous arrows indicate spread by migration, while dashed arrows indicate molecular differentiation from one haplogroup to another. Dates of origin of haplogroups are indicated in squares. Dates along arrows indicate possible migration time. (a) Haplogroup N differentiates from L3 in the African continent, with a subsequent spread out of Africa. (b) Haplogroups M and N diverged from L3 outside Africa or during the expansion of AMH out of the continent; later migrations during Early Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic diffusion led some lineages back to North Africa.