Predator-prey relationship between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostrous) altered by the presence of killer whales (Orcinus orca) at Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI). (A) Annual predation rate by C. carcharias as a function of mean fall (Sept. – Nov.) M. angustirostrous counts fit with a log-log regression line (dashed black line) showing confidence interval (dashed blue lines). Points are years where no flight response was detected, and triangles are the years in which a flight response was observed, near or before the peak of the C. carcharias season (≤November 2, inverted triangles), and near the end of the season (≥November 19, upright triangles). For comparison, an equivalent regression fit excluding flight years is shown with red dotted lines. (B) Seasonal C. carcharias kill rate as a function of the observed distance of O. orca activity to SEFI. The distribution of observed predations was reduced and truncated as a function of O. orca proximity to the common foraging ground (distance given in legend in km).