Table 2 Regression coefficients showing the longitudinal association between television and cognition.

From: Television viewing and cognitive decline in older age: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

  Verbal memory Semantic fluency
B ± SE p CI B ± SE p CI
Model 1
<2.5 hrs/day REF      
2.5–3.5 hrs/day −0.09 ± 0.16 0.58 −0.41 to 0.23 −0.08 ± 0.31 0.80 −0.69 to 0.53
3.5–4.5 hrs/day −0.58 ± 0.16 <0.001 −0.90 to −0.26 −1.06 ± 0.32 <0.001 −1.68 to -0.44
4.5–7 hrs/day −0.86 ± 0.15 <0.001 −1.16 to −0.56 −1.21 ± 0.30 <0.001 −1.80 to −0.62
>7 hrs/day −0.84 ± 0.16 <0.001 −1.16 to −0.53 −1.49 ± 0.31 <0.001 −2.10 to −0.87
Model 2
<2.5 hrs/day REF      
2.5–3.5 hrs/day 0.01 ± 0.15 0.93 −0.29 to 0.31 0.15 ± 0.30 0.51 −0.44 to 0.75
3.5–4.5 hrs/day −0.34 ± 0.16 0.030 −0.64 to −0.03 −0.51 ± 0.31 0.10 −1.12 to 0.10
4.5–7 hrs/day −0.39 ± 0.15 0.011 −0.69 to −0.09 −0.22 ± 0.30 0.47 −0.82 to 0.38
>7 hrs/day −0.50 ± 0.16 0.002 −0.82 to −0.19 −0.62 ± 0.32 0.051 −1.25 to 0.003
Model 3
<2.5 hrs/day REF      
2.5–3.5 hrs/day 0.001 ± 0.15 >0.99 −0.30 to 0.30 0.09 ± 0.30 0.77 −0.50 to 0.69
3.5–4.5 hrs/day −0.32 ± 0.16 0.040 −0.63 to −0.01 −0.44 ± 0.31 0.16 −1.05 to 0.17
4.5–7 hrs/day −0.38 ± 0.15 0.014 −0.68 to −0.08 −0.19 ± 0.31 0.53 −0.79 to 0.41
>7 hrs/day −0.45 ± 0.16 0.005 −0.77 to −0.14 −0.50 ± 0.32 0.12 −1.13 to 0.13
  1. Boldface indicates statistical significance; B = B coefficient; SE = standard error; CI = confidence intervals. Model 1 is adjusted for baseline cognition. Model 2 is additionally adjusted for demographic covariates (sex, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational attainment, employment status, retirement status, wealth, social support) and health-related covariates (depression, self-reported physical health, smoking, alcohol consumption and both long-standing and new chronic conditions). Model 3 is additionally adjusted for sedentary behaviours (physical activity level, mobility problems preventing walking, not leaving the house, reading a daily newspaper and using the internet). N = 3,590.