Table 1 Overview of demographics (age, body surface area (BSA), heart rate, respiratory rate) and results (amplitudes, pulsatility indices, net and retrograde volumes).

From: Heart beat but not respiration is the main driving force of the systemic venous return in the Fontan circulation

  Fontan circulation (N = 14) Normal circulation (N = 11) p-value
Demographics
Age [y] 9.2 ± 4.5 18.4 ± 12.3 0.23
BSA [m2] 1.1 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.6 0.12
Heart rate [min−1] 80.1 ± 11.0 78.9 ± 15.1 0.85
Respiratory rate [min−1] 21.8 ± 4.3 17.9 ± 5.7 0.11
Amplitudes [ml/s]
Cardiac 20.7 ± 8.2 79.3 ± 45.8 <0.01
Respiratory 52.1 ± 24.4 26.4 ± 12.4 <0.01
Interaction 11.8 ± 9.2 36.1 ± 13.3 <0.01
Pulsatility indices
Cardiac 0.96 ± 0.37 2.26 ± 0.74 <0.01
Respiratory 2.68 ± 1.56 0.82 ± 0.41 <0.01
Amplitude Ratios
Respiratory-to-cardiac 2.83 ± 1.58 0.40 ± 0.18 <0. 001
Blood volumes and fractions
Net volume [ml/m2] 21.4 ± 8.4 28.0 ± 9.8 0.02
Retrograde volumes [ml/m2]
 Physio-matrix 1.4 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.53 0.63
 ECG gating 0 ± 0 1.23 ± 1.39 <0.001
 Respiratory gating 1.3 ± 1.5 0 ± 0 <0.01
Retrograde vol. fractions [%]
 Physio-matrix −10 ± 10 −5 ± 4 0.70
 ECG gating 0 ± 0 −4 ± 4 <0.001
 Respiratory gating −11 ± 9 0 ± 0 <0.01