Table 2 Mechanical properties of Mammuthus primigenius and Loxodonta africana tusk dentine.

From: Mammoth ivory was the most suitable osseous raw material for the production of Late Pleistocene big game projectile points

  Mammuthus primigenius Loxodonta africana
3-point bending test, longitudinal orientation Young’s modulus (GPa) Bending strength (MPa) Work of fracture (kJ/m²) 10.1 ± 0.6 357.3 ± 26.1 22.3 ± 10.0 10.7 ± 0.6 369.0 ± 21.8 23.8 ± 6.9
3-point bending test, transversal orientation Young’s modulus (GPa) Bending strength (MPa) Work of fracture (kJ/m²) 6.2 ± 0.3 94.9 ± 10.7 0.4 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.5 97.0 ± 6.4 1.1 ± 0.5
Compression test, longitudinal orientation Compression modulus (GPa) 4.7 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.5
Indentation test Vickers hardness HV0.1 (GPa) 35.2 ± 1.2 41.2 ± 1.0