Table 1 Participants’ characteristics according to total cholesterol categories.

From: Total cholesterol and all-cause mortality by sex and age: a prospective cohort study among 12.8 million adults

Variables Characteristics Total Desirable Borderline High
<200 mg/dL 200–239 mg/dL ≥240 mg/dL
N = 12,815,006 n = 7,633,687 n = 3,739,930 n = 1,441,389
Total cholesterol mg/dLa 194.2 ± 49.0 169.1 ± 20.8 216.6 ± 11.1 268.9 ± 92.3
Age years 44.4 ± 14.2 42.1 ± 14.3 46.9 ± 13.5 49.8 ± 13.0
Systolic blood pressure mm Hg 124.1 ± 17.3 122.0 ± 16.6 126.3 ± 17.4 129.4 ± 18.2
Fasting serum glucose mg/dLb 94.9 ± 31.0 92.6 ± 27.9 96.7 ± 30.6 102.7 ± 43.4
Body mass index kg/m2 23.5 ± 3.2 22.9 ± 3.1 24.2 ± 3.1 24.8 ± 3.1
Sex Women 7,292,064 (56.9) 4,327,185 (56.7) 2,178,135 (58.2) 786,744 (54.6)
  Men 5,522,942 (43.1) 3,306,502 (43.3) 1,561,795 (41.8) 654,645 (45.4)
Smoking status Never smoker 3,653,334 (28.5) 2,195,184 (28.8) 1,063,607 (28.4) 394,543 (27.4)
  Past smoker 7,425,581 (57.9) 4,426,732 (58.0) 2,152,551 (57.6) 846,298 (58.7)
  Current smoker 1,099,436 (8.6) 619,146 (8.1) 347,798 (9.3) 132,492 (9.2)
  Missing 636,655 (5.0) 392,625 (5.1) 175,974 (4.7) 68,056 (4.7)
Alcohol use frequency, days None 6,102,884 (47.6) 3,538,707 (46.4) 1,814,686 (48.5) 749,491 (52.0)
  2/month-2/week 4,980,284 (38.9) 3,080,461 (40.4) 1,409,936 (37.7) 489,887 (34.0)
  3–7/week 1,237,846 (9.7) 714,422 (9.4) 375,968 (10.1) 147,456 (10.2)
  Missing 493,992 (3.9) 300,097 (3.9) 139,340 (3.7) 54,555 (3.8)
Physical activity ≥1 times/week 5,158,300 (40.3) 3,028,392 (39.7) 1,545,436 (41.3) 584,472 (40.5)
History of heart disease Yes 107,365 (0.8) 57,802 (0.8) 33,851 (0.9) 15,712 (1.1)
History of stroke Yes 48,669 (0.4) 24,739 (0.3) 16,087 (0.4) 7,843 (0.5)
History of cancer Yes 49,237 (0.4) 28,985 (0.4) 14,213 (0.4) 6,039 (0.4)
Age group, years 18–34 3,729,737 (29.1) 2,739,434 (35.9) 785,022 (21.0) 205,281 (14.2)
  35–44 3,256,771 (25.4) 1,977,540 (25.9) 957,884 (25.6) 321,347 (22.3)
  45–54 2,717,047 (21.2) 1,388,813 (18.2) 931,679 (24.9) 396,555 (27.5)
  55–64 1,863,363 (14.5) 887,619 (11.6) 655,108 (17.5) 320,636 (22.2)
  65–74 994,911 (7.8) 502,150 (6.6) 331,674 (8.9) 161,087 (11.2)
  75–99 253,177 (2.0) 138,131 (1.8) 78,563 (2.1) 36,483 (2.5)
Total cholesterol, mg/dL <120 122,981 (1.0) 122,981 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  120–129 185,401 (1.4) 185,401 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  130–139 402,908 (3.1) 402,908 (5.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  140–149 642,593 (5.0) 642,593 (8.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  150–159 935,938 (7.3) 935,938 (12.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  160–169 1,189,951 (9.3) 1,189,951 (15.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  170–179 1,349,594 (10.5) 1,349,594 (17.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  180–189 1,418,033 (11.1) 1,418,033 (18.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  190–199 1,386,288 (10.8) 1,386,288 (18.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  200–209 1,227,973 (9.6) 0 (0.0) 1,227,973 (32.8) 0 (0.0)
  210–219 1,037,227 (8.1) 0 (0.0) 1,037,227 (27.7) 0 (0.0)
  220–229 850,522 (6.6) 0 (0.0) 850,522 (22.7) 0 (0.0)
  230–239 624,208 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 624,208 (16.7) 0 (0.0)
  240–249 456,833 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 456,833 (31.7)
  250–259 342,597 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 342,597 (23.8)
  260–269 224,887 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 224,887 (15.6)
  270–279 136,285 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 136,285 (9.5)
  ≥280 280,787 (2.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 280,787 (19.5)
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%).
  2. The p values, which were calculated by the chi-square test and 1-way ANOVA across the cholesterol groups, were <0.001 for each variable.
  3. aTo convert total cholesterol from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.02586.
  4. bTo convert glucose from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555.
  5. SD, standard deviation; ANOVA, analysis of variance.