Hazard ratios* using spline transformed total cholesterol (TC) levels for mortality by sex and age. 5 knots (138, 170, 191, 213, and 260 mg/dL) were used with 220 mg/dL as reference. *Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox hazards models with the same method as in Fig. 3. To convert TC from mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.02586.