Table 1 Area concentrations of PAHs and aldehyde in three commercial cooking workplaces.

From: Risk assessment of personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes in three commercial cooking workplaces

Species/Chemical Western fast food kitchen (n = 5)a Chinese cafeteria kitchen (n = 6) Street food cart (n = 7)
Mean(SD) GM(GSD) Range Mean(SD) GM(GSD) Range Mean(SD) GM(GSD) Range
PAH (ng/m 3 )
Naphthalene 2890.5 (802.1) 2802.9 (1.3) (2115.1-3812.2) 3538.9 (1282.8) 3286.0 (1.6) (1482.8–4757.9) 27102.5 (44973.7) 7541.0 (5.5) (1154.7–120389.8)
Acenaphthylene 137.4 (147.0) 73.0 (3.8) (18.2–339.5) 209.8 (86.9) 192.5 (1.6) (82.9–334.9) 2672.5 (4529.3) 164.5 (28.1) (<LODb-11256.4)
Acenaphthene 76.1 (49.6) 62.2 (2.1) (21.4–148.7) 24.3 (25.7) 15.1 (3.2) (2.2–74.1) 573.5 (806.6) 94.9 (16.1) (<LOD-2126.5)
Fluorene 87.1 (68.7) 62.7 (2.7) (15.1–180.1) 95.7 (82.5) 63.1 (3.0) (11.9–212.1) 1587.6 (2652.4) 64.6 (40.0) (<LOD-6414.3)
Phenanthrene 70.2 (73.7) 38.1 (3.7) (7.7–167.9) 79.1 (35.6) 70.5 (1.8) (27.7–111.8) 1450.5 (2476.2) 36.0 (57.2) (0.1–5896.3)
Anthracene 8.7 (8.4) 5.3 (3.2) (1.4–19.9) 11.2 (11.0) 3.4 (12.4) (0.0–29.0) 256.9 (441.5) 16.6 (20.8) (<LOD-1097.5)
Fluoranthene 17.8 (11.5) 13.2 (2.7) (2.9–28.7) 7.8 (5.5) 5.8 (2.8) (<LOD-14.7) 513.0 (868.4) 16.1 (31.7) (0.4–1860.8)
Pyrene 22.8 (18.4) 16.0 (2.9) (3.3–51.1) 12.9 (11.3) 8.3 (3.2) (1.2–30.5) 499.8 (830.9) 26.3 (24.2) (0.9–1762.4)
Benzo(a)anthracene 2.9 (2.2) 1.5 (5.4) (0.1–5.0) 4.2 (3.7) 3.3 (2.4) (<LOD-8.9) 48.4 (84.1) 9.5 (7.4) (1.1–223.1)
Chrysene 4.6 (2.6) 4.0 (1.9) (2.0–7.3) 5.3 (4.7) 3.6 (2.9) (<LOD-11.1) 76.4 (134.7) 12.9 (8.0) (1.5–353.5)
Benzo(b)fluoranthene <LOD    <LOD    34.7 (66.2) 4.4 (9.9) (<LOD-175.9)
Benzo(k)fluoranthene <LOD    <LOD    31.8 (57.2) 5.7 (8.7) (<LOD-155.6)
Benzo(a)pyrene <LOD    <LOD    27.4 (53.4) 4.0 (8.3) (<LOD-141.6)
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene <LOD    <LOD    6.3 (10.4) 2.6 (4.2) (<LOD-25.1)
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene <LOD    <LOD    3.1 (6.2) 1.9 (3.1) (<LOD-16.4)
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene <LOD    <LOD    7.7 (14.4) 2.4 (4.9) (<LOD-37.6)
Total PAH 3318.0 (1133.6) 3171.0 (1.4) (2371.1–4698.6) 3989.3 (1390.7) 3721.1 (1.6) (1648.3–5342.0) 34892.2 (56755.4) 8790.2 (6.1) (1183.5–147585.4)
Total B(a)Peq 3.7 (1.2) 3.6 (1.4) (2.6–5.4) 4.6 (1.7) 4.2 (1.6) (1.7–6.2) 80.4 (141.5) 13.5 (8.3) (1.4–372.3)
Aldehyde (μg/m 3 )
Formaldehyde 15.1 (14.1) 7.6 (4.3) (0.8–34.7) 12.3 (6.4) 9.2 (3.0) (1.0–20.2) 35.5 (46.1) 18.0 (3.3) (7.0–119.2)
Acetaldehyde 18.5 (15.5) 12.1 (3.2) (1.8–36.2) 42.9 (22.6) 36.3 (2.0) (9.8–74.5) 17.0 (14.9) 13.8 (1.9) (8.5–50.0)
Acrolein 6.3 (6.7) 3.2 (3.2) (<LOD-16.4) 9.2 (10.6) 3.8 (6.1) (0.2–27.5) 16.4 (15.5) 11.4 (2.4) (4.7–42.3)
Propinoaldehyde 7.1 (5.7) 5.3 (2.0) (1.9–16.8) 16.7 (11.3) 13.0 (2.3) (4.8–29.7) 12.0 (9.1) 10.2 (1.8) (5.7–32.0)
Crotonaldehyde 12.2 (9.1) 8.6 (2.2) (2.6–26.6) 3.2 (2.8) 2.6 (2.3) (<LOD-7.6) 2.7 (2.4) 2.2 (2.3) (<LOD-6.4)
Butyraldehyde 5.6 (3.8) 3.5 (2.6) (1.0–10.9) 12.0 (11.8) 7.4 (3.0) (2.5–28.4) 10.3 (7.2) 8.4 (2.0) (3.4–24.1)
Valeraldehyde 16.0 (15.2) 5.6 (5.4) (0.9–35.0) 18.4 (18.6) 10.9 (3.2) (2.9–44.0) 14.9 (5.8) 13.8 (1.5) (7.1–23.1)
Hexaldehyde 65.2 (64.7) 27.2 (4.4) (3.0–164.4) 54.7 (54.4) 34.7 (2.9) (11.6–142.0) 50.7 (17.6) 48.1 (1.4) (30.3–69.6)
t-2-Heptenal 33.3 (43.9) 7.9 (6.9) (<LOD-103.5) 19.2 (25.0) 5.6 (7.4) (<LOD-59.8) 12.9 (7.6) 10.9 (1.9) (3.8–24.3)
t,t-2,4-Nonadienal 15.7 (14.9) 6.2 (4.7) (<LOD-34.7) 8.6 (9.6) 4.8 (3.5) (<LOD-23.4) 10.5 (10.8) 7.8 (2.1) (3.5–34.5)
t-2-Nonenal 21.8 (33.1) 4.8 (6.3) (<LOD-78.2) 9.7 (9.6) 4.9 (4.4) (0.6–23.8) 3.5 (2.6) 2.7 (2.2) (1.2–8.0)
t,t-2,4-Decadienal 86.3 (128.0) 15.4 (9.0) (1.2–307.2) 50.0 (58.6) 17.2 (7.2) (0.8–143.9) 30.3 (30.6) 19.9 (2.6) (8.0–75.4)
Nonanal 90.5 (108.7) 24.9 (6.6) (2.0–265.8) 53.6 (44.3) 40.4 (2.3) (13.4–131.4) 38.9 (21.0) 34.0 (1.8) (17.9–73.4)
Total 393.6 (385.7) 163.6 (4.4) (18.7–946.0) 310.4 (266.5) 222.8 (2.5) (68.5–725.3) 255.6 (107.0) 233.7 (1.6) (121.2–407.8)
  1. aSample size.
  2. bLOD, limit of detection.