Table 1 Concentrations and RBC membrane permeability coefficients (in physiological conditions) for the metabolites of glycolysis and of built-in reactionsa.

From: Erythrocytes as bioreactors to decrease excess ammonium concentration in blood

Metabolite Range of the experimentally measured concentrations into the cell, mmol/lRBCs Range of the experimentally measured concentrations in plasma, mmol/l Coefficient of permeability calculated from the literature data (Kp), h−1 Initial values of metabolite intracellular concentration used in the calculations, mmol/lRBCs
Pyruvate 0.047–0.95053,54 0.317–0.35543 51.832 0.07
Alanine 0.275–0.43528 0.300–0.37328 1.9534 0.3
Glutamate 0.212–0.46328,35 0.024–0.05035 028 0.45
Glutamine 0.197–0.92228,35,55 0.447–0.77628,35,55 0.6535 0.625
α-Ketoglytarate 0.005 (model)28 0.000–0.09356 0.02928,29 0.005
Lactate 1.00–2.1443,44,53 0.9–1.544 7.832 1.2
(NH3 + NH4+)b 0.010–0.05046,57 0.010–0.05046,57 70000033
  1. aThe value of AKG concentration in RBC was calculated using mathematical model28.
  2. bThe sum concentration (ammonia + ammonium) in normal blood is presented. The concentration of ammonia is about 1% of this total concentration, therefore in this study we mean under the concentration of ammonium the total concentration of ammonia and ammonium. The equilibrium ammonium concentrations within the cell and in plasma are achieved very quickly.