Figure 3 | Scientific Reports

Figure 3

From: Erythrocytes as bioreactors to decrease excess ammonium concentration in blood

Figure 3

Bioreactors with jointly encapsulated AAT (50 IU/mlRBCs) and GDH (10 IU/mlRBCs) of different types: NAD-dependent (a,c,e), or NADP-dependent and universal (b,d,f). Calculated kinetics of ammonium concentrations (a,b), NADH and NADPH (c,d), as well as pyruvate (PYR), α-ketoglutarate (AKG), glutamate (GLU) and alanine (ALA) (e,f). The haematocrit of EBRs is 100%. The calculation was made for a situation without constant AMM supply into the plasma (i.e., the initial concentration AMM0 was 0.5 mM and could be changed only due to reactions occurring in the bioreactor). Universal GDH works equally with both NAD and NADP. For NAD-dependent GDH, the kinetics of AMM and NADH was also calculated for the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, which was decreased by two orders of magnitude (panel a, curve 2 and panel c, curve 2, respectively). PYR, AKG, GLU and ALA were calculated for ammocytes containing NAD-GDH (e) or NADP-GDH (f). The initial concentrations of each metabolite corresponded to the values in Tables 1 and 2.

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