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Figure 2

From: Erythrocytes as bioreactors to decrease excess ammonium concentration in blood

Figure 2

Kinetics of ammonium (AMM) and other metabolites in bioreactors loaded with various individual enzymes. The AMM concentration is not stationary and can change only due to the reaction in the bioreactor. The haematocrit of all the EBRs is 100%. (a) The decrease in AMM in the presence of EBRs containing GS (1 IU/mlRBCs). The initial АММ concentration (AMM0) is 1 mM (1, 2) or 0.5 mM (3, 4). The equilibrium constants K6GS for curves (1, 3) and (2, 4) are 0.001 or 1 mM, respectively. (b) The kinetics of glutamic acid (GLU) and glutamine (GLN) in erythrocytes containing GS (1 IU/mlRBCs). AMM0 is 0.5 mM; the K6GS constant values are 0.001 mM (1, 2) or 1 mM (3, 4). (c) The kinetics of AMM (1, 4), α-ketoglutarate (AKG) (2, 5) and GLU (3, 6) in EBRs containing NADP-dependent GDH (10 IU/mlRBCs). The calculation is made for normal physiological (1–3) and increased by 100 times (4–6) permeability of the RBC membrane for AKG (relative permeability for AKG (PAKG) is 1 or 100, respectively). (d) The kinetics of AMM (1), pyruvate (PYR) (2), alanine (ALA) (3), NAD (4) and NADH (5) for EBRs with ADH (1 IU/mlRBCs). AMM0 is 0.5 mM.

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