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Figure 3

From: Musculoskeletal study of cebocephalic and cyclopic lamb heads illuminates links between normal and abnormal development, evolution and human pathologies

Figure 3

Head muscles of newborn lambs with a ‘myological more defective stage 2’. Typical configuration of more superficial (A) and deep (B) facial and masticatory muscles, as well as of extraocular muscles of the left eye (C,D) of more defective myological stage 2 newborn lambs dissected by us, as shown here in specimen 6 (paper square = 1 cm). Basically, in this specimen the truncation of the head is even more marked than in myological mild stage 2, with the facial tuber lying normally below they eye (not markedly anterior to it as is the case in normal newborn lambs), so although all the muscles are present and have their normal attachments, the direction of muscles such as the sphincter colli pars palpebralis are different from normal. This contrasts with stage 3, in which there are 3 small muscles on the snout region (dilatator naris lateralis, levator labii superioris, and levator anguli oris facialis) on the left side and only two on the right side. For more details see text and SI1 Table 1.

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