Table 2 Tests of complexity between lionfish and background quadrats.

From: Aggregating behaviour in invasive Caribbean lionfish is driven by habitat complexity

Complexity measure Test statistic p-value
Rugosity −1.8179 0.07534
Vector dispersion 8.7092 <0.001*
Fractal dimension 1–5 cm 6.3722 <0.001*
5–15 cm 0.9375 0.3528
15–30 cm −1.7142 0.09248
30–60 cm −2.2406 0.02899*
60–120 cm −2.5757 0.01255*
  1. Complexity was compared between lionfish quadrats (n = 30) and background quadrats (n = 44). Rugosity was tested using a Welch’s t-test, vector dispersion was tested using a two-sample t-test and all fractal dimension spatial scales were tested using ranked Welch’s t-tests. * indicates p < 0.05.