Table 3 Definitions of seahorse responses to flash treatments.

From: Behavioural and pathomorphological impacts of flash photography on benthic fishes

Category Action Description
Hunting efficiency
   Action Strike Seahorse attempts to strike at prey.
Catch Seahorse catches and swallows prey.
Success Ratio of catches to strikes.
Spatial Use
   Position Zone 1 The first vertical quarter of the tank, closest to the strobe.
Zone 2 The second vertical quarter of the tank relative to the strobe (Holdfast present in this zone).
Zone 3 The third vertical quarter of the tank relative to the strobe (Holdfast present in this zone).
Zone 4 The forth vertical quarter of the tank furthest away from the strobe.
   Orientation Towards The seahorse faces in the direction of the strobe.
Neutral The seahorse faces towards the camera or away from camera, both eyes are visible (30 degree angle towards or away from camera).
Away The seahorse faces away from the strobe.
Activity
   Rest Inactive The seahorse remains resting, without performing any kind of movement, while attached or unattached to the holdfast.
Swinging The seahorse remains attached to the holdfast, with slight movements of the head or body.
   Active Hunting The seahorse swims or tilts the body, head or snout in the direction of prey. Attempted strikes at food irrespective of success.
Swimming The seahorse moves horizontally or vertically (through the water or across the bottom of the tank) with undulating pectoral and dorsal fins.
Startled The seahorse repeatedly and rapidly contracts and contorts the body, strikes or swims into the tank wall, displays sudden erratic movements.