Table 2 Summary of interfacial fracture energy from literature and this study.

From: Organic-Inorganic Solid-State Hybridization with High-Strength and Anti-Hydrolysis Interface

Interface type Fracture energy (J/m2) Measuring technique Sample description and literature source
Al/PI (2.40 ± 0.36) × 103 ADCB E-VUV-assisted bonding at 150 °C for 10 min; no post-annealing; this study.
Al/Al 2.40 Theoretical calculation Thermodynamic work of cohesion; DFT calculation; (111) plane59.
11.92 ± 1.86 DCB Direct bonding at 200 °C for 10 min after Ar-FAB treatment; no post-annealing; this study.
Al2O3/Al2O3 7.42–7.96 Theoretical calculation Thermodynamic work of cohesion; ab initio calculation; unrelaxed α-Al2O3 basal plane60.
4.14 ± 0.24 DCB ALD growth on Si wafer; room-temperature direct bonding after plasma activation, and subsequently annealed at 200 °C for 2 h44,61.
PI/PI 7.44 × 10−2 Theoretical calculation Thermodynamic work of cohesion; Dupont Kapton (PMDA-ODA)62.
(3.31 ± 0.64) × 10−3 DCB Direct bonding at 150 °C for 10 min after water-vapor-assisted VUV treatment; no post-annealing; this study.
Silicon wafer bonding 4.26 Theoretical calculation Thermodynamic work of cohesion; (100) plane63.
~4.50 DCB Direct bonding via sequential plasma activation; room-temperature storage for 24 h44,64.
2.20–2.60 DCB Room-temperature direct bonding after standard RCA cleaning; hydrophilic surface; post-annealing at 150 °C for 20 h44,65.
3.80–4.20 DCB Room-temperature direct bonding after TMOS modification; post-annealing at 150 °C for 20 h44,65.
4.00–4.60 DCB Direct bonding at 1400 °C for 10 min after sprayed with deionized water44,58.
2.50–3.00 DCB Direct bonding at 1200 °C for 10 min after soaked in NH4OH44,58.
  1. Thermodynamic work of cohesion66 (Wc) was calculated based on Wc = 2γ, where γ is the surface energy of solids.