Examination of the geometric fidelity of the miniaturization process. (A) Photograph of miniaturized microPAD (0.5-M, 48 hours). Left, middle, and right channels all initially 16 mm in length prior to miniaturization. Red dots indicate point of measurement. (B) Graph of left, middle, and right channel length (photograph in part A) following miniaturization (n = 9). There was no significant difference between left and right channels (p = 0.855), but the middle channel was significantly shorter than both the left (p = 0.003) and right (p = 0.010) channels. Error bars represent one standard deviation from the mean. (C) Photograph of miniaturized grid on a full-sized sheet of 200 mm2 Whatman no. 1 chromatography paper. As expected, the paper shrank anisotropically22, but displayed good miniaturization fidelity across the sheet.