Table 1 Most metabolites changed peak areas significantly during fasting.

From: Diverse metabolic reactions activated during 58-hr fasting are revealed by non-targeted metabolomic analysis of human blood

Category Compounds Blood Plasma RBC
peak area 10 h fold-change peak area 10 h fold-change peak area 10 h fold-change
34 h/10 h 58 h/10 h 34 h/10 h 58 h/10 h 34 h/10 h 58 h/10 h
Butyrates (4) 2-Hydroxybutyrate L 7.1 13.8 M 6.7 13.7 L 6.0 11.1
2-Ketobutyrate L 6.7 12.7 L 4.9 11.7 L 4.8 8.1
3-Hydroxybutyrate L 19.9 58.0 L 17.2 55.4 L 16.3 44.9
Aminobutyrate* L 1.8 5.0 L 3.7 4.7 L 3.1 6.1
BCAAs (5) Isoleucine M 1.6 2.1 M 1.4 1.8 M 1.3 1.7
Keto(iso)leucine M 2.5 3.4 M 2.3 3.7 M 2.4 3.1
Ketovaline M 2.6 3.4 M 2.4 3.7 L 2.4 2.9
Leucine M 2.0 2.3 M 1.7 2.0 H 1.5 1.9
Valine M 1.7 2.0 M 1.4 1.9 M 1.3 1.6
Acylcarnitines (7) Acetyl-carnitine* L 1.6 2.1 L 2.9 5.3 L 1.1 1.4
Decanoyl-carnitine M 6.7 4.8 M 6.3 7.2 L 5.8 7.0
Dodecanoyl-carnitine L 5.1 4.7 L 5.8 8.1 L 3.7 5.5
Hexanoyl-carnitine L 2.2 2.0 L 3.0 3.8 L 1.6 1.9
Isovaleryl-carnitine M 1.2 1.2 L 1.3 1.8 M 1.2 1.4
Octanoyl-carnitine L 8.0 6.1 L 8.0 8.8 L 5.4 6.3
Tetradecanoyl-carnitine* L 7.0 6.7 L 8.6 14.0 L 4.0 6.1
Organic acids (5) 2-Oxoglutarate L 1.7 2.3 L 1.5 1.7 L 6.2 8.4
cis-Aconitate L 1.5 1.7 L 1.6 1.8 L 1.6 1.7
Citrate M 1.5 1.6 M 1.5 1.5 M 1.4 1.5
Malate* M 1.5 1.6 L 1.7 1.9 M 1.3 1.4
Succinate* L 1.5 1.5 L 1.5 1.3 L 1.4 1.5
Coenzymes (2) Nicotinamide* L 1.7 1.4 L 1.6 1.7 L 1.5 1.1
Pantothenate* L 1.5 1.7 L 1.8 2.6 L 1.2 1.4
Purines/Pyrimidines metabolism (9) Adenine* L 2.0 3.2 L 1.2 1.1 L 2.3 1.5
ADP* H 1.4 1.5 L 1.3 1.5 H 1.1 1.3
CTP L 1.1 1.1 L 1.4 1.6 L 1.2 1.0
Cytidine L 1.7 1.5 L 1.3 1.1 L 1.5 1.7
GTP* M 1.3 1.3 L 1.7 2.4 M 1.1 1.2
IMP* L 1.3 1.2 L 1.4 2.1 L 1.0 1.0
Urate* H 1.5 1.7 H 1.2 1.6 H 1.3 1.6
Uridine L 2.6 2.8 L 2.3 2.6 L 2.2 2.4
Xanthine L 3.5 4.0 L 3.8 4.4 L 2.8 3.5
Sugar metabolites (7) 6-Phosphogluconate* L 1.4 1.5 L 1.5 1.7 L 1.0 1.2
Diphosphoglycerate* H 1.4 1.4 L 1.2 1.8 H 1.1 1.2
Gluconate* M 1.2 1.2 L 0.8 0.6 M 1.0 0.8
Glucose-6-phosphate* M 1.2 1.3 L 1.5 1.6 M 1.0 1.2
Glycerol-phosphate* L 1.7 1.7 L 1.5 1.5 L 1.2 1.2
Pentose-phosphate* L 1.5 1.8 L 1.6 1.9 L 1.0 1.3
Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate* L 1.1 1.2 L 1.8 2.2 L 0.9 1.1
Anti-oxidants (3) Ergothioneine* M 1.2 1.2 L 1.5 1.9 H 1.1 1.2
Ophthalmic acid* L 2.0 3.6 not detected L 1.8 3.2
Carnosine* L 1.1 0.8 not detected L 1.3 1.8
Amino acids (4) Aspartate* M 1.2 1.2 L 0.5 0.4 M 1.0 1.2
Dimethyl-arginine M 1.4 1.3 M 1.3 1.4 M 1.4 1.7
Lysine M 1.5 1.3 M 1.5 1.2 M 1.2 1.0
N-Acetyl-(iso)leucine L 1.3 1.0 L 1.3 1.1 L 1.2 1.7
  1. Summary of 46 metabolites in whole blood, plasma, and RBCs that changed concentration significantly (>1.5x) during 58 hr of fasting. Thirty-two metabolites in italics have not been previously reported as fasting markers. Asterisks indicate 22 RBC-enriched metabolites. Note that some RBC-enriched compounds are also detectable in plasma6. Peak abundance, defined as high (H) (>108 AU), medium (M) (107–108 AU), or low (L) (<107 AU). Metabolites are classified as butyrates, acylcarnitines, BCAAs, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, coenzymes, organic acids, antioxidants, and sugar-metabolites. Changes of abundance for each compound are indicated. Most metabolites increased during fasting, while only two decreased <0.66x (aspartate and gluconate), as indicated by arrows ↓.