Table 5 Summary of meta-analysis results for beneficial/harmful therapies on the outcomes remyelination, oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) count, and oligodendrocyte count.

From: Remyelination promoting therapies in multiple sclerosis animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Therapy remyelination OPCs Oligodendrocytes Tested in clinical trial
Anti-Lingo-1-antibodies Increase (6) Not tested Not significant (1) Yes (II)
Apotransferrin Not significant (1) Decrease (1) Increase (2) No
Benztropine Not significant (1) Not tested Increase (1) No
Dizocilipine (MK801, MNDA receptor antagonist) Decrease (1) Not significant (1) Not significant (1) No
Ebselen (glutaminase inhibitor) Increase (1) Not tested Not tested Yes (II)
Electro acupuncture Increase (1) Increase (1) Increase (1) Yes (II)
Electromagnetic field stimulation Increase (2) Not tested Not tested Yes (II)
Epimedium flavonoids (extract of epimedium sagittatum) Increase (1) Decrease (1) Not significant (1) No
Estrogen receptor agonist G1 Not significant (1) Not tested Increase (1) No
Glatiramer Acetate (mixture of synthetic polypeptides) Increase (2) Not significant (2) Not significant (1) Yes (IV)
Iloprost (prostaglandin I2) Not significant (2) Increase (1) Not tested No
Indazol chloride (Estrogen receptor agonist) Increase (1) Not tested Not significant (1) No
Lactacystin (Proteasome inhibitor) Not significant (1) Decrease (1) Not tested No
N6-cyclohexyladenosine (Adenosine A1-receptor agonist) Increase (1) Not tested Not tested No
Neurotrophin 3 Increase (1) Not tested Not significant (1) No
Ninjin’yoeito (extract from different medicinal herbs) Increase (1) Not tested Not tested No
Olesoxime (cholesterol-like compound) Not significant (3) Not significant (1) Increase (2) Yes (I)
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) Not tested Increase (1) Increase (1) No
Plateled derived growth factor (PDGF) Increase (1) Increase (1) Not tested No
Progesterone Increase (3) Not significant (1) Increase (2) Yes (III)
Quetiapine (atypical antipsychotic) Increase (3) Not significant (1) Increase (2) Yes (II)
Sildenafil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) Increase (1) Not tested Not tested No
Simvastatin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) Decrease (2) Not significant (1) Not significant (1) Yes (IV)
siRNA against Nogo-receptor Increase (1) Not tested Not tested No
Sonic hedgehog Not tested Not tested Increase (1) No
Testosterone Increase (1) Increase (1) Increase (1) Yes (II)
Tocopherol derivate TFA-12 (Vitamin E derivate) Increase (1) Not significant (1) Increase (1) No
Trapidil (PDGF agonist) Decrease (1) Not tested Not tested No
Triiodothyronine Increase (4) Increase (1) Increase (4) Yes (I)
Valproic acid (antiepileptic) Decrease (1) Increase (1) Decrease (1) No
Vitamin E Increase (3) Not tested Not tested Yes (II)
  1. The numers in brackets in the second to fourth columns indicate the number of comparisons for each outcome. The roman number in brackets in the last column indicates the latest phase of clinical trial the therapy has entered.