Variation of curvature, speed, centripetal and tangential acceleration during turning segments of three individual bees, shown in (a–c). In each subfigure the left hand panel shows the turning segment, with the red symbols defining the duration of the turning segment that was analysed. The upper right hand panel shows the variation of curvature (left ordinate) and speed (right ordinate) as a function of time (abscissa). The lower right hand panel shows the variation of centripetal acceleration (left ordinate) and tangential acceleration (right ordinate) as a function of time. The dashed black lines show the zero-crossing point of the tangential acceleration. The numbers next to the curves show the CVs of the curvature, speed and centripetal acceleration. These flights were recorded at 335fps in order to visualise the variations of the turning parameters with a higher temporal resolution. Here, we applied a 29-point moving average filter to smooth the 3D position data, and subsequently a 11-point moving average filter to smooth out higher-level noise arising from computation of the second order derivatives.