Table 2 Output from LMMs testing the effects of prenatal playback of incubation calls (treatment; n = 13) or contact calls (control; n = 18) on three measures of father-son song similarity: (a) broad-scale (arcsine-transformed), (b) fine-scale, and (c) sequential similarity. Models include playback treatment, father song complexity (number of different syllable types), and son nestling mass as fixed effects; and father identity as a random effect. For the variable ‘playback treatment’, estimates and SEs are for treatment males, with control as a reference.

From: Prenatal exposure to incubation calls affects song learning in the zebra finch

  Estimate SE T-value P-value
(a) Broad-scale similarity
playback treatment −0.04 0.08 −0.46 0.650
father syllable types (n) −0.10 0.04 −2.53 0.021
nestling mass 0.06 0.04 1.59 0.127
(b) Fine-scale similarity
playback treatment −1.30 0.72 −1.81 0.082
father syllable types (n) −0.22 0.37 −0.59 0.564
nestling mass 1.24 0.35 3.51 0.002
(c) Sequential similarity
playback treatment −2.19 6.35 −0.35 0.733
father syllable types (n) 2.13 3.11 0.69 0.499
nestling mass 1.01 3.31 0.31 0.763