Table 1 Output from LMMs or GLMMs testing the effects of prenatal playback of incubation calls (treatment; n = 13) or contact calls (control; n = 18) on the number of song syllables that males (a) copied from their father, (b) failed to copy from their father, and (c) copied from non-father males or improvised. Models include playback treatment, father song complexity (number of different syllable types), and son nestling mass as fixed effects; and father identity as a random effect. For the variable ‘playback treatment’, estimates and SEs are for treatment males, with control as a reference.

From: Prenatal exposure to incubation calls affects song learning in the zebra finch

  Estimate SE T-value P-value
(a) Copied syllables
playback treatment −0.26 0.32 −0.82 0.418
father syllable types (n) 0.38 0.16 2.41 0.023
nestling mass 0.04 0.16 0.26 0.796
  Estimate SE Z-value P-value
(b) Dropped syllables
playback treatment 0.08 0.28 0.27 0.787
father syllable types (n) 0.41 0.12 3.42 0.001
nestling mass −0.01 0.14 −0.07 0.941
(c) Non-paternal syllables
playback treatment 0.84 0.30 2.78 0.006
father syllable types (n) −0.11 0.15 −0.76 0.447
nestling mass −0.14 0.16 −0.88 0.380