Anchorage-dependent PCI-55 microtumours show morphological polarity. (a–h), 3D-reconstructed fluorescence images in PCI-55 microtumours. (a) Fluorescence images in PCI-55 cells cultured on glass substrate overnight. (b) PCI-55 cells cultured on a conventional microplate without roughness overnight. (c) PCI-55 cells cultured on the micro/nanoplate overnight. (d) PCI-55 microtumours anchored to three circular islands (see Supplementary Movie 2). (e) Bottom surface. Grey layer: cell non-adherable area coated by MPC polymer. (f) Indexed plan. (g) When microtumours exceeded a circular island, they showed MT-based protrusions in the presumed direction of movement. (h) Anchorage-dependent PCI-55 microtumours showing morphological polarity. Arrows indicate presumed direction of movement. Anchorage-dependent PCI-55 microtumours exhibiting MT-based protrusions in the presumed direction of movement (arrows and arrowheads).