Table 2 Effect of photoperiod and fruit consumption on body weight gain, fat mass, cumulative food intake, energy expenditure, energy balance and respiratory quotient in obese animals.

From: Seasonal consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits affects the hypothalamic leptin signaling system in a photoperiod-dependent mode

  Photoperiod Control Grape ANOVAb Cherry ANOVAb
Body weight gain (g) LD 113.31 ± 5.4 128.36 ± 4.3 ns 121.09 ± 3.2 ns
SD 116.74 ± 6.6 117.39 ± 4.3 119.70 ± 5.9
Fat mass (g) LD 89.51 ± 3.80 96.49 ± 2.90 ns 86.56 ± 2.23 ns
SD 85.84 ± 3.27 87.29 ± 5.48 88.29 ± 5.31
Fat mass (%) LD 22.03 ± 0.6 22.57 ± 0.6 ns 21.70 ± 0.7 ns
SD 21.53 ± 0.8 21.10 ± 1.3 21.82 ± 1.0
Cumulative food intake (MJ) LD 5.79 ± 0.2 5.72 ± 0.2 P 5.13 ± 0.2 F
SD 5.43 ± 0.2 5.20 ± 0.1 5.01 ± 0.1
24 h energy expenditure (MJ/Kg0.75) LD 0.23 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.01 ns 0.22 ± 0.01 ns
SD 0.23 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.00 0.23 ± 0.01
24 h energy balancea (MJ) LD 0.83 ± 0.1 0.79 ± 0.0 P 0.40 ± 0.1* F, F*P
SD 0.60 ± 0.1 0.46 ± 0.1 0.55 ± 0.1
24 h RQ LD 0.78 ± 0.0 0.78 ± 0.0 P 0.79 ± 0.0 F*P
SD 0.81 ± 0.0 0.80 ± 0.0 0.78 ± 0.0*
  1. LD, long day; ns, non-significant; RQ, respiratory quotient; SD, short day. Values are presented as the mean ± SEM of ten animals per group. aEnergy balance was estimated by difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. bDenotes two-way ANOVA analysis: P, photoperiod effect; F, fruit effect; F*P, interaction effect of photoperiod and fruit treatment (P ≤ 0.05). *Effect of fruit on photoperiod group determined by Student’s t test (P ≤ 0.05).