Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the patients in the validation cohort: continuous variables are represented as median, (interquartile range, IQR); categorical variables were represented as (%, n).

From: Combined quantification of procalcitonin and HLA-DR improves sepsis detection in surgical patients

   Sepsis patients (n = 74) Surg controls (n = 21) p value
Characteristics Age [years, median (IQR)] 70.50 (20) 70.00 (12) n.s.
Male [% (n)] 58.10 (43) 61.90 (13) n.s.
Comorbidities, % (n) High Blood Pressure 45.94 (34) 61.90 (13) n.s.
Chronic cardiovascular disease 9.46 (7) 9.52 (2) n.s.
Chronic respiratory disease 5.41 (4) 4.76 (1) n.s.
Chronic renal failure 8.11 (6) 9.52 (2) n.s.
Chronic hepatic failure 2.70 (2) 0 (0) n.s.
Diabetes mellitus 14.86 (11) 19.04 (4) n.s.
Cancer 18.91 (14) 42.86 (9) 0.024
Immunosuppression 9.46 (7) 4.76 (1) n.s.
Surgery type, % (n) Urgent surgery 79.73 (59) 9.52 (2) <0.001
Abdominal 47.30 (35) 23.81 (5) n.s.
Vascular 2.70 (2) 9.52 (2) n.s.
Urological/Renal 1.35 (1) 14.29 (3) 0.009
Other 4.05 (3) 0 (0) n.s.
Time course and outcome Length of hospital stay [days, median (IQR)] 16 (17) 10 (10) 0.048
Length of ICU stay [days,median (IQR)] 3 (5) 2 (2) 0.050
SIRS, % (n) 100 (74) 23.81 (5) 0.003
Septic Shock, % (n) 48.64 (36) 0 (0) <0.001
Hospital mortality, % (n) 12.16 (9) 0 (0) n.s.
Respiratory tract, % (n) 14.86 (11) n.a. n.a.
Abdomen, % (n) 40.54 (30) n.a. n.a.
Urinary tract, % (n) 5.41 (4) n.a. n.a.
Surgical site, % (n) 25.68 (19) n.a. n.a.
Bacteremia, % (n) 14.86 (11) n.a. n.a.
Other, % (n) 10.81 (8) n.a. n.a.
Microbiology, % (n) Positive culture 45.94 (34) n.a. n.a.
Gram+ 18.92 (14) n.a. n.a.
Gram− 32.43 (24) n.a. n.a.
Fungi 1.35 (1) n.a. n.a.
Virus 0 (0) n.a. n.a.
Polymicrobial 18.92 (14) n.a. n.a.
Measurements at diagnosis, [median (IQR)] SOFA score 6 (7) 2.50 (5) n.s.
Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.82 (1.06) 0.83 (0.59) n.s.
Glucose (mg/dl) 160 (73) 162 (39) n.s.
Platelet count (cell/mm3) 135000 (191500) 209000 (146000) n.s.
INR 1.22 (0.33) 1.11 (1.20) 0.023
CRP (mg/L) 216.84 (179.83) 103.34 (98.85) <0.001
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 2.70 (9.35) 0.29 (0.71) <0.001
White Blood cells (cells/mm3) 14960 (10600) 11280 (8075) n.s.
Neutrophils (cells/mm3) 13358.50 (11962.50) 10341.00 (9362) n.s.
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Score; CRP, C reactive protein; INR, international normalized ratio; n.s: not significant; n.a: not applicable.