Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients in the derivation cohort: continuous variables are represented as median, (interquartile range, IQR); categorical variables were represented as (%, n).

From: Combined quantification of procalcitonin and HLA-DR improves sepsis detection in surgical patients

   Sepsis patients (n = 101) Surg. controls (n = 53) p
Characteristics Age [years, median (IQR)] 72.00 (15) 64.00 (18) 0.006
Male 65.35 (66) 71.70 (38) n.s.
Comorbidities, % (n) High Blood Pressure 55.45 (56) 60 (30) n.s.
Chronic cardiovascular disease 47 (47) 32.65 (16) n.s.
Chronic respiratory disease 14.85 (15) 21.15 (11) n.s.
Chronic renal failure 14.85 (15) 2 (1) n.s.
Chronic hepatic failure 2.97 (3) 5.88 (3) n.s.
Neurologic disease 4.95 (5) 3.77 (2) n.s.
Cerebrovascular disease 3.96 (4) 5.66 (3) n.s.
Diabetes mellitus 33.66 (34) 18.87 (10) 0.005
Cancer 29.70 (30) 45.3 (24) 0.050
Immunosuppression 17.84 (17) 13.89 (5) n.s.
Surgery type, % (n) Urgent surgery 63.36 (64) 4.76 (2) <0.001
Cardio-thoracic 30 (30) 39.62 (21) n.s.
Abdominal 62 (62) 43.40 (23) n.s.
Neurosurgery 1 (1) 1.89 (1) n.s.
Vascular 3 (3) 3.77 (2) n.s.
Urological/Renal 1 (1) 9.43 (5) 0.011
Other 3 (3) 1.89 (1) n.s.
Time course and outcome Length of hospital stay [days, median (IQR)] 26.5 (23.5) 10.0 (7.0) <0.001
Length of ICU stay [days,median (IQR)] 14.0 (17.0) 4.0 (3.0) <0.001
SIRS, % (n) 100 (101) 56.60 (30) <0.001
Septic Shock, % (n) 61.39 (62) n.a n.a.
Non-survivors at day 28, % (n) 19.80 (20) 0 <0.001
Hospital mortality, % (n) 24.75 (25) 0 <0.001
Source of infection, % (n) Unknown 14.85 (15) n.a. n.a.
Respiratory tract 18.81 (19) n.a. n.a.
Abdomen 45.55 (46) n.a. n.a.
Urinary tract 4.95 (5) n.a. n.a.
Surgical site 5.94 (6) n.a. n.a.
Bacteremia 4.95 (5) n.a. n.a.
Other 4.95 (5) n.a. n.a.
Microbiology, % (n) Gram+ 46.5 (47) n.a. n.a.
Gram− 58.4 (59) n.a. n.a.
Fungi 6.9 (7) n.a. n.a.
Virus 2 (2) n.a. n.a.
Polymicrobial 40.6 (41) n.a. n.a.
Measurements at diagnosis, [median (IQR)] SOFA score 8 (6) 1 (3) <0.001
Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.75 (1.30) 0.77 (0.53) n.s.
Glucose (mg/dl) 152.0 (78.0) 135.0 (55.0) n.s.
Platelet count (cell/mm3) 180000 (194.75) 155000 (740000) n.s.
INR 1.30 (0.42) 1.23 (0.41) n.s.
ScvO2 (%) 73.10 (19.00) 68.80 (80.00) n.s.
CRP (mg/L) 232.30 (169.25) 57.70 (77.70) <0.001
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 5.57 (17.51) 0.50 (0.97) <0.001
White Blood cells (cells/mm3) 14465 (10257.50) 12290 (4875.0) 0.023
Neutrophils (cells/mm3) 12337 (9220.50) 10016 (4704.5) 0.017
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Score; CRP, C reactive protein; INR, international normalized ratio; ScvO2: Central venous oxygen saturation; n.s: not significant; n.a: not applicable.