Table 1 Patient characteristics and biochemical profiles.

From: Range of L5 LDL levels in healthy adults and L5’s predictive power in patients with hyperlipidemia or coronary artery disease

Baseline characteristic Control (n = 35) HLP (n = 35) CAD (n = 40) P value*
Men:women 19:16 15:20 23:17 0.421
Age (yr) 39.8 ± 12.0 56.5 ± 10.4 61.5 ± 9.4 <0.001
Patient history
  Diabetes (%) 0 (0/35) 31 (11/35) 25 (10/40) 0.002
  Hypertension (%) 0 (0/35) 66 (23/35) 68 (27/40) <0.001
  Dyslipidemia (%) 0 (0/35) 100 (35/35) 55 (22/40) <0.001
Medications†
  Antiplatelet drugs (%) 0 (0/35) 3 (1/35) 18 (7/40) 0.007
  Statin (%) 0 (0/35) 3 (1/35) 20 (8/40) 0.003
  Treatment for high BP (%) 0 (0/35) 0 (0/35) 13 (5/40) <0.001
Glu AC (mg/dL) 96.3 ± 17.4 115.0 ± 35.6 111.2 ± 28.8 0.016
Lipid profile
  T-CHOL (mg/dL) 173.4 ± 32.8 235.9 ± 36.6 200.7 ± 48.9 <0.001
  TG (mg/dL) 79.7 ± 56.1 164.5 ± 90.6 133.1 ± 96.6 <0.001
  HDL-C 54.4 ± 14.0 53.1 ± 16.4 50.2 ± 17.6 0.504
  LDL-C 103.3 ± 27.6 146.0 ± 34.9 124.5 ± 36.3 <0.001
  LDL/HDL 2.02 ± 0.79 2.95 ± 1.00 2.63 ± 0.84 <0.001
L1% 86.6 ± 7.2 69.9 ± 22.7 60.8 ± 24.1 0.001
L2% 5.3 ± 4.7 10.5 ± 9.0 13.5 ± 9.7 0.010
L3% 6.5 ± 3.3 16.3 ± 14.6 20.0 ± 16.7 0.011
L4% 0.4 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 1.4 2.0 ± 2.8 0.027
L5% 1.30 ± 0.66 2.28 ± 1.32 3.65 ± 2.32 <0.001
[L5] (mg/dL) 1.31 ± 0.70 3.24 ± 2.00 4.33 ± 2.48 <0.001
  1. *P-value for the analysis of variance or chi-square test.
  2. Medications taken within 3 months before study enrollment, including anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel; statins such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin; and high blood pressure treatment such as amlodipine and amlodine/benazepril.
  3. [L5], the concentration of L5, calculated as L5% × LDL-C (mg/dL).
  4. BP = Blood pressure; CAD = (stable) coronary artery disease; Glu AC = fasting blood sugar; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HLP = hyperlipidemia without coronary artery disease; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; L5% = L5 percentage; T-CHOL = total cholesterol; TG = triglyceride.