Table 2 Distribution of baseline cardiovascular health metrics between the participants who developed into ECAS or not in two-year follow-up.

From: Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Associated with Reductions in the Risk of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis: a Population-based Cohort Study

  Total (n = 3487) ECAS P-value
Yes (n = 976) No (n = 2511)
Smoking     <0.001
  Ideal 2251 (64.6) 570 (58.4) 1681 (67.0)  
  Intermediate 183 (5.2) 85(8.7) 98 (3.9)  
  Poor 1053 (30.2) 321 (32. 9) 732 (29.2)  
BMI     0.045
  Ideal 1862 (53.4) 493 (50.5) 1369 (54.5)  
  Intermediate 1410 (40.4) 427 (43.8) 983 (39.2)  
  Poor 215 (6.2) 56 (5.7) 159 (6.3)  
Physical exercise     <0.001
  Ideal 1361 (39.0) 306 (31.4) 1055 (42.0)  
  Intermediate 915 (26.2) 206 (21.1) 709 (28.2)  
  Poor 1211 (34.7) 464 (47.5) 747 (29.8)  
Salt intake     0.011
  Ideal 738 (21.2) 191 (19.6) 547 (21.8)  
  Intermediate 2046 (58.7) 557 (57.1) 1489 (59.3)  
  Poor 703 (20.2) 228 (23.4) 475 (18.9)  
TC     <0.001
  Ideal 2053 (58.9) 455 (46.6) 1598 (63.6)  
  Intermediate 1024 (29.4) 356 (36.5) 668 (26.6)  
  Poor 410 (11.8) 165 (16.9) 245 (9.8)  
BP     <0.001
  Ideal 688 (19.7) 121 (12.4) 567 (22.6)  
  Intermediate 1139 (32.7) 365 (37.4) 774 (30.8)  
  Poor 1660 (47.6) 490 (50.2) 1170 (46.6)  
FBG     <0.001
  Ideal 2394 (68.7) 619 (63.4) 1775 (70.7)  
  Intermediate 787 (22.6) 231 (23.7) 556 (22.1)  
  Poor 306 (8.8) 126 (12.9) 180 (7.2)  
CVH score 8.7 ± 2.2 7.8 ± 2.0 9.0 ± 2.2 <0.001
  0–4 points 101 (2.9) 41 (4.2) 60 (2.4) <0.001
  5–9 points 2124 (60.9) 720 (73.8) 1404 (55.9)  
  10–14 points 1262 (36.2) 215 (22.0) 1047 (41.7)  
  1. Abbreviations: ECAS, extracranial carotid artery stenosis; BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; BP, blood pressure; FBG, fasting plasma glucose; CVH, cardiovascular health.