Table 1 Descriptive statistics by depression symptoms identified via the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) depression scale, 2014–2015.

From: Associations of unconventional natural gas development with depression symptoms and disordered sleep in Pennsylvania

Variable Depression symptoms
0; None 1–9; Mild 9–14; Moderate 15–24; Moderately severe/severe Missing
Total numbera, n (%b) 2,976 (100) 1,075 (100) 454 (100) 257 (100) 170 (100)
UNGDc metric, n (%)
Very low 756 (25.4) 259 (24.1) 117 (25.8) 62 (24.1) 39 (22.9)
Low 726 (24.4) 285 (26.5) 113 (24.9) 66 (25.7) 43 (25.3)
Medium 776 (26.1) 253 (23.5) 101 (22.2) 58 (22.6) 45 (26.5)
High 718 (24.1) 278 (25.9) 123 (27.1) 71 (27.6) 43 (25.3)
  pd = 0.65
Race, n (%)
White 2766 (92.9) 1005 (93.5) 420 (92.5) 228 (88.7) 158 (92.9)
Black 88 (3.0) 33 (3.1) 14 (3.1) 8 (3.1) 3 (1.8)
Hispanic 122 (4.1) 37 (3.4) 20 (4.4) 21 (8.2) 9 (5.3)
  p = 0.11
Female, n (%) 1829 (61.5) 721 (67.1) 294 (64.8) 191 (74.3) 87 (51.2)
  p < 0.01
Medical Assistance, n (%) 138 (4.6) 107 (10.0) 80 (17.6) 84 (32.7) 12 (7.1)
  p < 0.01
Smoking status, n (%)
Never 1774 (59.6) 588 (54.7) 233 (51.3) 107 (41.6) 83 (48.8)
Current 278 (9.3) 162 (15.1) 81 (17.8) 67 (26.1) 18 (10.6)
Former 924 (31.0) 325 (30.2) 140 (30.8) 83 (32.3) 69 (40.6)
  p < 0.01
Community type, n (%)
Borough 799 (26.8) 284 (26.4) 131 (28.9) 80 (31.1) 46 (27.1)
City 202 (6.8) 99 (9.2) 45 (9.9) 34 (13.2) 9 (5.3)
Township 1975 (66.4) 692 (64.4) 278 (61.2) 143 (55.6) 115 (67.6)
  p < 0.01
Well water, n (%) 1129 (37.9) 410 (38.1) 147 (32.4) 66 (25.7) 75 (44.1)
  p < 0.01
Alcohol status, n (%)
No 1256 (42.2) 431 (40.1) 183 (40.3) 121 (47.1) 82 (48.2)
Yes, not heavy 1505 (50.6) 524 (48.7) 191 (42.1) 92 (35.8) 78 (45.9)
Yes, heavy 215 (7.2) 120 (11.2) 80 (17.6) 44 (17.1) 10 (5.9)
  p < 0.01
On depression medication, n (%) 601 (20.2) 396 (36.8) 213 (46.9) 138 (53.7) 43 (25.3)
  p < 0.01
Number of PHQ-8 questions missing, n (%)
0 2796 (94) 977 (90.9) 411 (90.5) 235 (91.4) 0 (0)
1–7 180 (6) 98 (9.1) 43 (9.5) 22 (8.6) 0 (0)
All 8 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 170 (100)
  p < 0.01
BMI (kg/m2), mean 29.6 30.5 31.5 32.1 29.4