Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: Palmitate-induced lipotoxicity is crucial for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in cooperation with gut-derived endotoxin

Figure 2

Palmitate and gut-derived endotoxin elevated serum ALT levels. (A) Plasma endotoxin levels were measured in 28-week-old BD-fed WT mice 24 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.025 mg/kg LPS or PBS or no treatment and in HFD-fed 28-week-old WT mice 4 weeks after gut-sterilization or no treatment. (B) Serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of palmitate or vehicle or no treatment in HFD-fed 28-week-old mice that were gut-sterilized for 4 weeks or untreated. (C) Serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after 0.025 mg/kg LPS or PBS injection in BD-fed 28-week-old mice. LPS or PBS was injected 1 h after palmitate or vehicle injection. (D) Immunohistochemical detection of TUNEL (×200) in representative liver samples and average numbers of TUNEL-positive cells (×100) 24 h after 0.025 mg/kg LPS or PBS injection were examined in BD-fed 28-week-old WT mice. LPS or PBS was injected 1 h after palmitate or vehicle injection. Scale bars, 100 μm. (E) Ly-6G or control IgG was intraperitoneally injected 24 h prior to palmitate or vehicle injection in 28-week-old HFD-fed (Left) and BD-fed mice (Right). In HFD-fed mice, serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after palmitate or vehicle injection. In BD-fed mice, serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after 0.025 mg/kg LPS or PBS injection, which was performed 1 h after palmitate injection. (F) Clodronate or control liposomes were injected into the tail vein 48 h prior to palmitate or vehicle injection in 28-week-old HFD-fed (Left) and BD-fed mice (Right). In HFD-fed mice, serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after palmitate or vehicle injection. In BD-fed mice, serum ALT levels were measured 24 h after 0.025 mg/kg LPS or PBS injection, which was performed 1 h after palmitate injection. n = 5 mice per group. Data represent the mean ± SD. *P < 0.05. NS, not significant.

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