Figure 5 | Scientific Reports

Figure 5

From: Superior Strength and Multiple Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanocrystalline TWIP Steel

Figure 5

Schematic diagram showing dominating strengthening mechanism evolution steps of HT- and RT-HPT samples. For εs < 92 (Stage I), grain refinement occurs in all HPT-treated samples and grain size remains unchanged at a given HPT temperature. (ii) For εs = 92 (Stage II), the RT-HPT sample achieves plasticity by means of solid phase transformation, while nanometer-thick twins occur in the HT-HPT sample. (iii) For εs = 125 (Stage III), multiple phases coexist by means of two-step paths of solid phase transformation for RT-HPT sample, while nano-twins, nano-grains, and solute segregation occur for the HT-HPT sample.

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