Table 2 Differences in participants’ calibration errors.

From: Virtual environments as memory training devices in navigational tasks for older adults

Age Recall stage Repeated measures ANOVA Pairwise comparison
Younger Immediate F(2,84) = 1.98, p > 0.05, \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) = 0.02 M-A p > 0.05, d = 0.23
M-R p > 0.05, d = 0.13
R-A p > 0.05, d = 0.35
Delayed F(2,84) = 8.01, p < 0.01, \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) = 0.08 A-M p = 0.04*, d = 0.51
R-M p < 0.01**, d = 0.65
A-R p > 0.05, d = 0.14
Immediate-Delayed (only pairwise) A: t(41) = 0.76, p > 0.05, r = 0.12
M: t(41) = 1.54, p > 0.05, r = 0.23
R: t(41) = 3.33, p < 0.01**, r = 0.46
Older Immediate F(2,78) = 6.94, p < 0.01, \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) = 0.07 M-A p < 0.01**, d = 0.65
M-R p > 0.05, d = 0.37
R-A p > 0.05, d = 0.32
Delayed F(2,78) = 8.63, p < 0.001, \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) = 0.10 M-A p < 0.01**, d = 0.73
M-R p = 0.01**, d = 0.59
R-A p > 0.05, d = 0.25
Immediate-Delayed (only pairwise) A: t(38) = 1.44, p > 0.05, r = 0.23
M: t(38) = 0.07, p > 0.05, r = 0.01
R: t(38) = 3.00, p < 0.01**, r = 0.44
  1. In the pairwise comparison column, the VE that leads to the least calibration error is listed first. M:MixedVE, A:AbstractVE, R:RealisticVE. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05.