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Figure 1

From: Parrots have evolved a primate-like telencephalic-midbrain-cerebellar circuit

Figure 1

Cortico-cerebellar pathways in birds and mammals. In mammals, inputs from the cortex to the cerebellum are routed through the pontine nuclei. In birds, inputs from the telencephalon to the cerebellum are also routed through two nuclei in the base of the pons (medial and lateral pontine nuclei, PM and PL) but also trough an additional nucleus in the pretectum, the medial spiriform nuclei (SpM). In mammals the cerebellum, through the cerebellar nuclei (CBN) sends projections back to the thalamus, which in turn projects to motor and associative areas of the cortex. In birds there also a projection from the cerebellum to the thalamus but this arises from the lateral cerebellar nucleus. In turn, these regions of the thalamus projects the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), (the avian analogous of the prefrontal cortex of mammals), and the rostral Wulst, (the avian equivalent of motor cortex).

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