Content of defensin-1 (Def-1) and total polyphenol in honeydew honey samples (n = 23) and medical-grade manuka and kanuka honey. (A) Def-1 content was quantified in honey samples using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the results were expressed as a percentage of total protein. (B) Total polyphenol (TP) content was determined with a Folin Ciocalteu Phenolic Content Quantification Assay Kit in 20% (w/v) honeydew honey solutions. Gallic acid (GAE) was used as the reference standard compound and results were expressed as GAE equivalents (mg/ml). Data are expressed as the mean values with standard error of the mean (SEM).