Table 4 Clinical background of subjects in longitudinal study.

From: Habitual hot water bathing protects cardiovascular function in middle-aged to elderly Japanese subjects

  Hot water bathing frequency P
Group A (<4 times/w) Group B (>5 times/w)
  42 124  
Men, n (%) 17 (40) 59 (48) 0.42
Age, years old 67.9 ± 7.6 66.4 ± 8.1 0.30
Body height, cm 157.4 ± 9.0 158.6 ± 8.5 0.42
Body weight, kg 56.9 ± 11.9 57.7 ± 10.1 0.81
Body mass index, kg/m2 22.8 ± 3.4 22.9 ± 2.9 0.85
Systolic BP, mmHg 137.8 ± 19.7 136.5 ± 19.5 0.72
Diastolic BP, mmHg 75.1 ± 11.4 77.0 ± 11.9 0.36
Systolic BP 2, mmHg 131.6 ± 20.5 128.5 ± 20.0 0.39
Heart rate, bpm 64.1 ± 9.6 67.0 ± 11.7 0.15
Total cholesterol, mg/dl 218.4 ± 32.4 223.1 ± 40.7 0.50
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 68.5 ± 20.9 68.7 ± 19.5 0.95
Triglyceride, mg/dl 101.1 ± 51.6 102.8 ± 53.9 0.85
Glucose, mg/dl 101.6 ± 13.8 104.9 ± 212.0 0.35
IRI, μU/ml 5.0 ± 2.7 5.8 ± 4.0 0.24
Creatinine, mg/dl 0.73 ± 0.21 0.75 ± 0.19 0.57
eGFR 72.3 ± 15.0 71.2 ± 12.0 0.63
BNP, pg/ml 37.9 ± 28.2 23.7 ± 23.7 0.03
baPWV, cm/sec 1645 ± 378 1598 ± 282 0.39
Carotid mean IMT, mm 0.77 ± 0.15 0.81 ± 0.16 0.13
Carotid max IMT, mm 0.95 ± 0.22 1.00 ± 0.22 0.24
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 9 (21) 32 (26) 0.57
Antidyslimidemia drugs, n (%) 7 (17) 22 (18) 0.87
Antidiabetic drugs, n (%) 3 (7) 9 (7) 0.98
Hypertension, n (%) 21 (50) 61 (49) 0.93
Type 2 Diabetes, n (%) 7 (17) 19 (15) 0.84
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 27 (64) 79 (64) 0.95
Smoking current/past/never, n 4/9/29 8/33/83 0.69
Physical activity, everyday/sometimes/not often/never, n 8/31/3/0 33/64/23/4 0.03
Mean follow up length, year 5.1 ± 1.7 4.7 ± 2.1 0.36
Mean follow up times, times 2.6 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.5 0.09
  1. BP, blood pressure; HDL, high density lipoprotein; IRI, immunoreactive insulin; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; BNP, b-type natriuretic peptide; baPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; IMT, intima-media thickness.
  2. Mean ± SD.