Table 3 Stepwise regression analyses for atherosclerotic and central haemodynamic parameters.

From: Habitual hot water bathing protects cardiovascular function in middle-aged to elderly Japanese subjects

  baPWV (n = 870) Max IMT (n = 873) PP2 (n = 873) BNP (n = 873)
Beta P Beta p Beta p Beta p
Age, years old 0.43 <0.0001 0.35 <0.0001 0.32 <0.0001 0.30 <0.0001
Sex, female      −0.16 <0.0001 −0.20 0.0001
Body height, cm        0.27 <0.0001
Body weight, kg −0.08 0.007 0.10 0.002 −0.19 <0.0001 −0.22 <0.0001
Mean BP, mmHg 0.36 <0.0001 0.08 0.01 0.53 <0.0001   
Hear rate, bpm 0.14 <0.0001 −0.12 0.0001 −0.40 <0.0001 −0.20 <0.0001
Glucose, mg/dl    0.09 0.01 0.12 <0.0001   
Insulin, μU/ml 0.09 0.001       
Total cholesterol, mg/dl        −0.07 0.04
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl −0.09 0.001    −0.11 <0.0001   
Triglyceride, mg/dl         
eGFR, mg/dl         
Antihypertensive drugs        0.12 0.0002
Antidyslipidemia drug 0.05 0.03       
Antidiabetic drugs 0.07 0.004 0.07 0.04     
Current smoking, yes = 1    0.06 0.04     
Physical activitya)         
Bathing frequency, times/week      −0.05 0.02 −0.07 0.03
Duration, min         
Water temperature, hot = 1 −0.10 <0.0001       
  1. baPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; IMT, intima-media thickness; PP2, pulse pressure at the second systolic blood pressure; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; HDL, high density lipoprotein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate;
  2. a)Physical activity, 1 = everyday, 2 = sometimes, 3 = not often, 4 = never.