Table 1 Clinical characteristics of studied population divided by the weekly frequency of hot water bathing.

From: Habitual hot water bathing protects cardiovascular function in middle-aged to elderly Japanese subjects

  Group I
(0–4 times/w)
Group II
(5–6 times/w)
Group III
(>7 times/w)
P
n (men/women) 228 (90/138) 198(75/123) 447(180/267) 0.85
Age, years old 67.8 ± 9.0 66.6 ± 7.4 64.5 ± 8.6 <0.0001
Body height (cm)* 158.9 ± 0.337 158.8 ± 0.36 159.0 ± 0.241 0.84
Body weight (kg)* 59.4 ± 0.560 59.0 ± 0.597 59.3 ± 0.40 0.86
BMI (kg/m2)* 23.4 ± 0.209 23.3 ± 0.223 23.3 ± 0.150 0.98
Systolic BP, mmHg* 134.5 ± 1.20 133.6 ± 1.29 134.8 ± 0.862 0.74
Diastolic BP, mmHg* 76.0 ± 0.728 76.9 ± 0.777 77.1 ± 0.52 0.43
Systolic BP2, mmHg* 126.7 ± 1.247 126.5 ± 1.331 127.5 ± 0.892 0.76
Heart rate, bpm* 66.5 ± 0.663 65.0 ± 0.708 65.5 ± 0.474 0.30
Total cholesterol, mg/dl* 216.9 ± 2.336 210.9 ± 2.493 217.4 ± 3.671 0.08
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl* 65.7 ± 1.15 64.5 ± 1.23 65.8 ± 0.2 0.65
Triglyceride, mg/dl* 114.7 ± 3.75 106.5 ± 4.00 108.3 ± 2.68 0.26
Creatinine mg/dl 0.75 ± 0.0112 0.75 ± 0.012 0.77 ± 0.008 0.28
eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2 72.4 ± 0.93 72.1 ± 0.99 70.9 ± 0.67 0.36
Fasting glucose, mg/dl* 104.6 ± 1.22 102.2 ± 1.303 104.8 ± 0.873 0.24
IRI, micro U/ml* 5.9 ± 0.259 5.9 ± 0.277 6.0 ± 0.186 0.99
Antihypertensive drugs n (%) 77 (34) 61 (31) 128 (29) 0.39
Antidyslipidemic drugs, n (%) 58 (25) 56 (28) 95 (21) 0.13
Antidiabetic drugs, n (%) 20 (9) 9 (5) 23 (5) 0.13
Hypertension, n (%) 122 (54) 107 (54) 224 (50) 0.56
Type 2 Diabetes, n (%) 43 (19) 25 (13) 53 (12) 0.04
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 154 (68) 125 (63) 305 (68) 0.43
Smoking status, current/past/never, n 11/68/149 9/56/133 25/108/314 0.55
Physical activity, everyday/sometimes/not often/never 28/124/58/8 40/107/44/7 89/247/93/18 0.85
Carotid mean IMT, mm 0.80 ± 0.16 0.80 ± 0.14 0.77 ± 0.15 0.03
Carotid max IMT, mm 1.03 ± 0.32 0.98 ± 0.21 0.97 ± 0.25 0.02
Radial AI, % 89.4 ± 12.3 89.7 ± 10.0 89.4 ± 10.8 0.94
PP2, mmHg 52.4 ± 16.0 50.4 ± 13.7 49.6 ± 15.1 0.07
baPWV, cm/sec 1658 ± 335 1579 ± 328 1560 ± 306 0.0008
BNP, pg/ml 37.2 ± 36.8 32.2 ± 27.0 28.5 ± 26.5 0.002
Bathing duration, min 13.6 ± 12.3 11.9 ± 7.9 11.9 ± 9.3 0.07
Water temperature, Hot/medium/lukewarm 25/180/22 31/156/11 79/344/22 0.04
  1. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; HDL, high density lipoprotein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IRI, immunoreactive insulin.
  2. Values are mean ± SD. *Corrected for age and sex.