Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Short-term increase in discs’ apparent diffusion is associated with pain and mobility improvements after spinal mobilization for low back pain

Figure 1

Decision tree used by the orthopaedic manual physical therapist (OMPT) to select the parameters of PA. Grades I & II corresponds to clinical group1, and grades III & IV to clinical 2 and 3, described by Maitland4. Here, only grades III and IV were selected by the OMPT, ranging from III− − to III+ + and IV− − to IV+ +. When pain was greater than stiffness, the OMPT felt pain as the limiting factor of movement early in the ROM; when pain was equal to stiffness, the OMPT felt pain or stiffness as the limiting factor of movement in the ROM with both pain and stiffness present at a high level; and when stiffness was greater than pain, the OMPT felt stiffness as the limiting factor of movement in the end of the ROM with pain at a low level (P > 5/10). Anatomical level (L1-L2 to L5-S1) and location (central or unilateral) were chosen, by palpation during PA mobilization, as the most painful and stiffest sites. The slump test was considered as painful (P), when pain was radiating below the knees and not painful (no P) when not.

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