Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: Temporary microglia-depletion after cosmic radiation modifies phagocytic activity and prevents cognitive deficits

Figure 2

Radiation-induced memory impairments rescued by PLX treatment. Animals were exposed to helium radiation (0, 15, 50, 100 cGy). Beginning 90 days later, animals were tested for memory deficits or anxiety-like behavior. (A) Memory deficits were measured by novel object recognition. Animals were exposed to two identical object, 24 hrs later the animals are exposed to one familiar object and one novel object. Memory deficits are calculated by a deficit in distinguishing the new object. Nv = novel. Fm = Familiar. Two-way repeated measured ANOVA found a significant group (p < 0.0001) and discrimination effect (p < 0.0001). Sidak post hoc analysis revealed differences in discrimination effects. Animals exposed to 15 or 50 cGy of helium radiation were unable to distinguish the objects, denoting memory impairment. (B) Total exploration time with both objects is depicted per group. (C) Arena side preference is determined during the familiarization phase. In which animals are exposed to two identical objects. Time spent exploring each object is measured. L = object on the left side of the arena, R = object on the right side of the arena. (D) Anxiety-like behavior was measured by time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze. A one-way ANOVA did not reveal any significant differences between groups. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Individual animal scores represented in dots, bars depict group mean and SEM. N = 12–18 each group.

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