Table 2 Factors for the frequency of recapping behaviour within surviving and susceptible populations of European honey bee subspecies, A. mellifera.

From: Rapid parallel evolution overcomes global honey bee parasite

Response variable Explanatory variable n DF χ2 P Value
Recapping Population 74 3 5.43 0.14
Resistance level 1 23.11 1.52 e 10−6
Cell type 1 439.8 <2.2 e 10−16
Brood stage 1 4.96 0.026
Cell type × Resistance level 1 34.54 4.19 e 10−9
  1. Recapping was counted as the number of cells that had been recapped amongst the dissected cells in each colony. Population is described as groups of independent colonies sampled in different regions: France (Avignon, Sarthe), Norway and Sweden. Resistance level is described as populations of surviving or susceptible bees within the same region of study. Cell type is described as the status of infested or non-infested of brood cells. Brood stage was the mean estimated age of the capped brood examined per colony. A GLMM was fitted to the data, with colony as the individual, and the colony ID as a random effect. A binomial distribution with a response vector was used to assess the rate of recapping.