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Rate of non-reproduction was counted as the number of infested cells that failed to produce viable female offspring. Population is described as groups of independent colonies sampled in different regions: France (Avignon, Sarthe), Norway and Sweden. Resistance level is described as populations of surviving or susceptible bees within the same region of study. Brood stage was the mean estimated age of the capped brood examined per colony. A GLMM was fitted to the data, with colony as the individual and colony ID as a random effect. A binomial distribution with a response vector was used to assess the rate of non-reproduction.