Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: Propranolol sensitizes prostate cancer cells to glucose metabolism inhibition and prevents cancer progression

Figure 2

Low glucose condition increases autophagy and enhances sensitivity to propranolol in PC3 cells. PC3 cells were cultured in medium containing 7% dialyzed FBS and 1 mM or 7 mM glucose for the indicated times. (a) Autophagy was investigated by LC3-II/LC3-I and p62 western blotting followed by a normalization on Erk1/2 to control protein loading. Under low glucose PC3 cells have an increased autophagy flux. (b) Cells were challenged or not with 10 μg/ml of E64d, a cathepsin inhibitor, for 72 h. Treatment with E64d further enhances the low glucose-dependent accumulation of LC3-II and p62. (c,d) Cells were treated or not with 100 μM propranolol (P) for the indicated amount of time. (c) The proliferation of treated PC3 cells was measured as described in the “Materials and Methods”. P strongly inhibits PC3 cells proliferation in low glucose condition. (d) The percentage of death of PC3 cells was quantified by FACS after culture during 72 h. Propranolol induces cell death more efficiently in low than high glucose conditions. FACS analysis was performed after labeling PC3 cells with FITC-annexin V and propidium iodide. 10 000 events were collected for each experiment.