Experimental paradigm. Participants underwent three phases: (i) encoding, (ii) delay, and (iii) testing. During encoding, participants were presented 60 photos of a range of unique everyday items from the Mnemonic Similarity Task database (e.g. Stark et al. 2013). Participants incidentally encoded these items via the performance of a judgment making task, where they were required to respond whether a presented item would typically be found indoors or outdoors. Each item was presented for 2000 ms and was followed by a 500 ms inter-stimulus crosshair (+). Following encoding, participants completed one of three delay conditions: (A) no delay (N = 20), (B) 10 minutes of awake quiescence (N = 20), or (C) 10 minutes of an engaging perceptual task (spot-the-difference game) (N = 20). In the subsequent testing phase, participants were presented 30 of the ‘old’ items presented during encoding (targets), along with 30 ‘similar’ items that were visually similar objects from the same semantic category to the remaining 30 items presented during encoding (lures), and 30 ‘new’ items that were visually and semantically different to the items presented during encoding (foils). There was no limit on the time to respond during testing.