Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Ketogenic diet enhances neurovascular function with altered gut microbiome in young healthy mice

Figure 1

Ketogenic diet enhances neurovascular functions. (a) Representative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps superimposed on structural images; color code indicates level of CBF in a linear scale. KD mice exhibited significantly higher CBF in the (b) ventromedial hypothalamus. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, ***p < 0.001. (c) Western blot (WB) images for mTOR, P-gp, and eNOS from the cortical vasculature, β-Actin was used as loading control. (d) The corresponding values of the levels of protein expression. WB data from KD mice were normalized to β-Actin and compared to the control mice (100%), *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. (e) Representative confocal images showing increased luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA fluorescence in brain capillaries isolated from KD mice compared to control mice, indicating higher P-gp transport activity. Corresponding quantitative fluorescence data; images are shown in arbitrary fluorescence units (scale 0–255). Data are mean ± SEM for 10 capillaries from one preparation of 10 mice per group, ***p < 0.001. mTOR: mechanistic target of Rapamycin; P-gp: P-glycoprotein; eNOS; endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

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