Competition-defense tradeoffs and eco-evolutionary potential. Competition-defense tradeoff ratio in non-target species influences the difference between ecological (red) and eco-evolutionary (black) model predictions of harvest-species abundance. “Cheap defense” tradeoffs (left side) lead to system destabilization prior to harvest. “Cheap competition” tradeoffs (right side) lead to similar predictions from both models. Intermediate competition-defense tradeoffs lead to harvest-induced evolution in non-target species (Fig. 2), which feeds-back to bolster or undermine the harvested top predator. Solid and dashed lines indicate mean ± one standard deviation for 12 model runs at each tradeoff ratio value. See Fig. 1 for model structure schematic.