Eco-evolutionary consequences of non-target species evolution during harvest. Harvest-mediated evolution in non-target trophic levels feeds-back to undermine or bolster the harvested top predator. Each column represents a unique set of simulations. Odd-numbered trophic levels below the harvested species evolve increased competitive ability and decreased defense (increased vulnerability) during harvest, which bolsters the harvested species; even numbered trophic levels evolve decreased competitive ability and increased defense (decreased vulnerability), undermining the harvested species. Black lines show average results from 12 simulations with evolution on (eco-evolutionary models); red lines show average results from 12 simulations in which trait values were fixed at pre-harvest means (ecology only models). Thick lines show population abundances; thin dashed lines show genotype means, which code for competitiveness and vulnerability to predators. Harvest of top predator begins at arrows. Competition-defense tradeoff ratios were set to maximize evolutionary potential (Fig. 3). See Fig. 1 for model structure schematic.