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Figure 1

From: Eco-evolutionary Feedbacks from Non-target Species Influence Harvest Yield and Sustainability

Figure 1

Harvest-induced eco-evolutionary trophic cascades. Cascading harvest-mediated abundance changes cause evolution in lower, non-target species, which then feeds-back to bolster or undermine the harvested top predator. Directions of abundance changes, evolution, and feedbacks alternate predictably down the food chain. Results are from an individual-based model with four trophic levels, each feeding exclusively on the level below it. Patterns are robust to models in which the penultimate trophic level (secondary consumer) was harvested instead of the top predator.

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