The expression levels of ARID1A were significantly increased in α-OG treated condition. (A) Quantification result from RT-PCR analysis to measure the gene expression levels of six candidate genes (ARID1A, HDAC4, PKD1, β-CATENIN, SMARCA2, and PBRM1) in the presence or absence of α-OG. *P < 0.05 (two-sided Student’s t-test). (B) Representative western blot show the levels of candidates (ARID1A, HDAC4, PKD1, β-CATENIN, SMARCA2, and PBRM1) and β-actin. (C) DNMT and (D) TET activity were measured in response to α-OG treatment. *P < 0.05 (two-sided Student’s t-test). (E) Representative Immunohistochemical stain showed ARID1A expression in bladder tissues obtained from IC patients (IC) and healthy donors (C). (F) A diagram showing the potential mechanism that redundant α-OG in urine may regulate bladder epithelial cells and contribute to suppression of cell proliferation.