Forest plot of the effect of vectorization of AONs on dystrophin restoration in DMD models. Results of the meta-analysis of studies that compared dystrophin restoration after treatment with vectorized and non-vectorized AONs in genetic animal models of DMD. All values were obtained from tibialis anterior or, if data for this muscle was not reported, quadriceps. If multiple vectors were assessed in the same experiment, the vector with the highest mean was used. An overall beneficial effect of vectorization was observed. For PNA-type AONs, this effect was not significant. Data are presented as Standardized Mean Difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). im = intramuscular, iv = intravenous, sc = subcutaneous, ip = intraperitoneal.