Figure 8 | Scientific Reports

Figure 8

From: Echinacoside Increases Sperm Quantity in Rats by Targeting the Hypothalamic Androgen Receptor

Figure 8

Mechanism by which ECH enhances the sperm counts. Note: ECH targets and inhibits AR transports from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the hypothalamus, thereby inhibiting the negative feedback of hormones. Positive feedback is subsequently stimulated resulting in increased secretion of Gnrh and LH. LH then stimulates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in conjunction with CYP11A1 in the inner mitochondria membrane of the testis, tethered to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Cholesterol (CHO) in converted, via side-chain cleavage, into pregnenolone (PREG), the hormonal precursor required for synthesis of hormones in the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, including progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (ADSD), androstenediol (5-AED) and testosterone. Increased testosterone stimulates AR transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the testis thereby promoting sperm productions.

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