Table 1 Summary of the human studies in which the plantar flexor or the soleus muscle atrophy has been treated with exercise. Comparison with the results achieved in our study.

From: Allopurinol partially prevents disuse muscle atrophy in mice and humans

  N° of subjects Muscle Protocol Treatment Control Intervention
Pre (cm2) Post (cm2) % Change Pre (cm2) Post (cm2) % Change
Our study 25 ankle sprain patients Soleus CSA 15 d of unilateral lower limb immobilization 300 mg/day of allopurinol 31.2 ± 4.6 28.6 ± 5.8 8.6 (p < 0.05) 28.8 ± 4.6 27.7 ± 5.8 4.1 (NS)
26 9 healthy men Soleus PCSA 20 d of bed rest Isometric leg-press 41.2 ± 9.5 35.0 ± 6.1 15.0 (p < 0.05) 45.1 ± 9.2 40.3 ± 5.1 10.6 (p < 0.05)
25 15 healthy men Soleus PCSA 20 d of bed rest Dynamic leg press: knee extension and plantar flexion 40.3 ± 7.4 35.4 ± 5.2 12.1 (p < 0.01) 56.9 ± 18.1 51.3 ± 17.6 9.8 (p < 0.01)
41 16 healthy men Plantar flexor CSA 21 d of unilateral lower-limb suspension High-intensity resistance-training 7.0 (p < 0.05) ~0%
27 12 healthy men Plantar flexor PCSA 20 d of bed rest Leg press and plantar flexion resistance training 138.3 ± 19.0 122.2 ± 24.3 12.7 (p < 0.05) 117.9 ± 8.0 115.0 ± 10.5 3.2 (NS)
42 11 healthy men Plantar Flexor CSA 20 d of unilateral lower limb suspension Cycling training (80% of VO2peak) 11.2 (p < 0.05) 7.0 (p < 0.05)
  1. PCSA: Physiological Cross Sectional Area. PCSA = Muscle Volume × Cosine of the muscle fiber pennation angle × (fibre length)−1.
  2. NS: Not significant.